Middle East


Basic Facts

  • 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi)
  • 75 million people, increasing at a rate of 1.3% a year
  • Developing economy
  • 368.9 billion US dollars
  • Oil/Natural gas
    • Import: Refined fuel, Natural gas (during winter), electricity
    • Export: Oil, Natural gas
  • Types of energy used for
    • Heating: Natural gas
    • Electrical production: Natural gas, Oil, Hydropower
    • Industry: Natural gas, Oil, Refined fuel
  • Carbon Footprint: 524 tonnes total
  • Major environmental issues
  • Air Pollution: Vehicle emissions, refinery operations, industrial effluents
  • Deforestation
  • Contaminated water supplies: Industrial and urban waste runoff
  • Oil and chemical spills (Rare)'


Major Biomes: Deserts. The Lout Desert of East Iran (30.6050 degrees North, 59.0678 degrees East), The Kavir Desert of North Iran (34.7376 degrees North, 54.8271 degrees East).

Abiotic Factors for Biomes:
Average precipitation- 128 mm
Average Temperature- 17 degrees Celsius (Hottest place on earth)
Wind Patterns- Constantly very windy.
Soil Composition- No soil, just sand.
Dominate Geographic features- Large plateaus, huge sand Dunes, Sand.
Solar Radiation- Causes it to be hottest place on Earth.
Limiting Factors- A barren wasteland for the most part with very few streams to support the few organisms it does. Very little diversity here.

Holdridge life zone pyramid-

Iran Pyramid

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Iran Pyramid
  • Chaparral, Mediterranean Wood, Forest, Shrub (41.942638,33.068848; 40.119565,26.30127)
Coastal Chaparral Zone
Coastal Chaparral Zone
  • Desert (40.350469,26.861572; 40.350469,26.861572)
Desert Zone
Desert Zone

Turkey's varied climate and proximity to the sea make its climate and ecological zones very diverse. The country is divided between three dominant biomes, temperate grassland occupying the largest area of land.

Temperate Grassland Biome

  • Average Precipitation: 20-35 inches
  • Average Temperature: Varies, average of 50 degrees in the winter (temperate/mild), highs of 100 in the summer (hot/dry)
  • Soil Composition: deep and dark, with fertile upper layers. It is nutrient-rich from the growth and decay of deep, many-branched grass roots
  • Geographic Features: Grass is the dominant vegetation, flat and treeless
Turkey lies in the steppe/woodland and dry forest zones
Turkey lies in the steppe/woodland and dry forest zones



Biome Species

  • Autotrophs: Wheatgrass (agropyron), elm (ulmus), lucerne (medicago)
  • Heterotrophs: gazelles, hyenas, ground squirrels
  • Decomposers+Scavengers: entipedes, scavengers, fungi
  • Endangered Species: Loggerhead turtle, monk seals

Environmental Problems
Turkey's ancient agricultural legacy means large parts of the grasslands have been depleted. Deforestation, logging, and reduced biodiversity.

Saudi Arabia

Basic Facts

  • Size: 2.15 million kmĀ² (830,000 sq miles)
  • Population Size: 27,345,986
  • Growth Rate: 1.49%
  • Economic Status: Developing
  • Gross Domestic Product: 745.27 billion US dollars in 2013
  • Major Natural Resources: Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
    • Major Import: Industrial Machinery and Equipment, Chemicals, Automobiles, and Textiles
    • Major Export: Petroleum, Oil, Plastics, Metal Goods, and Electrical Appliances
  • Types of energy used for:
    • Heating: Oil/Natural Gas
    • Electrical Production: Oil
    • Industry: Oil/Natural Gas
  • Carbon Footprint: 478.41 Million Metric Tonnes
  • Major Environmental Problems: desertification, depletion of underground water resources, and the lack of perennial rivers and other permanent water bodies

Major Biomes: Desert

  • Abiotic Factors:
    • Average Precipitation: 59 mm per year
    • Average Temperature: On average per year is 20-32 degrees Celsius
    • Wind Patterns: Strong Northwesternly Winds
    • Soil Composition: Soils are poorly developed with a high salt content
    • Solar Radiation: SolarGIS-Solar-map-DNI-Saudi-Arabia-en.png
  • Holdridge Life Zone Pyramid: Bottom left corner 1280px-Lifezones_Pengo.svg.png
  • Climatogram: Living1.gif
  • 3 Major autotrophs: Date Palm,
  • 3 Major heterotrophs: Arabian Camel, Cacaral, Gecko
  • 3 decomposers/scavengers: Vulture,
  • Keystone species:
  • Endangered Species: Euphrates Jerboa, Nubian Ibex
  • Major Problem: Desertification
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