Asia

Created and Edited by: Jeremy Drexler, Connie Sarantos, and Angie Martino

"Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it's the only thing that ever has." ~Margaret Mead

India

Environmental Status

-Size of Region: 3287263 KM2
-Population size and growth rate: 1241492 people/ 1.3%
-Economic Status: Developed
-Gross Domestic Product:$1897608000000
-Major Natural Resource: Zinc, Iron ore, Manganese ore, Gold, Bauxite, Silver, Lead, Tin, Copper, and Chromite
~Major import: Iron and steel, Crude minerals, Chemicals, PVC, paper waste, and raw wool
~Major export: tires and tubes, rubber, Bicycles, dyes, electronic items, tea, and spices
-Types of energy used for
~Heating: Solar Energy and Traditional Heating Methods
~Electrical Production: Fossil Fuels and Nuclear Power
~Industry: Kerosene and Petroleum
-Carbon Footprint:1977805 metric tons of carbon emitted at 1.7 metric tons per capita
-Major Environmental Problems: 935 Threatened Species

Biome

The major biomes present are tropical rain forests, tropical wet evergreen forests, tropical moist forests, tropical dry forests, tropical thorn forests, tropical desert, and Himalayan temperate tundra.

Abiotic Factors

India gets about 1,940 mm of precipitation per year on average. It also has a wide variety of soils. India’s climate can be classified as a hot tropical country, except the northern states of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir in the north and Sikkim in the northeastern hills, which have a cooler, more continental influenced climate.
In most of India summer is very hot. Beginning in April and continuing until the beginning of October, when the monsoon rains start to fall. The heat peaks in June with temperatures in the northern plains and the west reach 45° C and more. The monsoons hit the country during this period too, beginning 1st of June when they are supposed to find the Kerala coast, moving further inland from day to day. Moisture laden trade winds sweep the country bringing heavy rains and thunderstorms; sometimes these monsoon rains can be very heavy, causing floods and damage, especially along the big Rivers of India, Bramaputhra and Ganges.
The plains in the north and even the barren countryside of Rajasthan have a cold wave every year in December-January. Minimum temperatures could dip below 5°C but maximum temperatures usually do not fall lower than 12°C. In the northern high altitude areas of the northern mountains it snows through the winter and even summer months are only mildly warm.
~Typhoons are usually not an danger, these tropical storms are quite seldom in India. The Typhoon Season is from August to November; the East coast of India has the highest Typhoon risk.

Climate

Climatogram of Pune, India
Climatogram of Pune, India

Species

Major Autotrophs
• Lotus Flower
• Indian Gooseberry
• Cypress Trees
Major Heterotrophs
• Asian Elephant
• Crocodile
• Gee's Golden Langur
Decomposers
• Chanterelle mushroom
• Brain Mushroom
• Fly Amanita mushroom
Keystone/Valuable Species
• Tigers
• Dhole
• Snowleopard

Present State

India is currently dealing with a plethora of environmental Problems that pose a high level of risk to plants, animals and humans alike. Some of these issues include Air pollution, water pollution, garbage, and pollution of the natural environment.

Air pollution in India.
Air pollution in India.

China

Environmental Status

-Size of Region: 9,596,961 sq. km
-Population size and growth rate: 1.357 billion, 0.44%
-Economic Status: Developed
-Gross Domestic Product: $13.39 trillion
-Major Natural Resource: mineral resources, such as coal, iron, copper, aluminum stibium, molybdenum, manganese, tin, lead, zinc and mercury
-Major import: machinery, oil and mineral fuels, medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles
-Major export: machinery, apparel, radio telephone handsets, textiles, integrated circuits
-Types of energy used for
-Heating: rural: mainly coal, urban: mainly natural gas
-Electrical Production: coal
-Industry: coal
-Carbon Footprint: 6.195 metric tons per capita, 8,286,892 kilotons annually
-Major Environmental Problems: pollution, especially air and water/drinking water

There are 16 upland biomes in China.
There are 16 upland biomes in China.

Biome

China's major biomes include: temperate broadleaf evergreen forest, polar desert, arid shrubland, and temperate deciduous forest.

Abiotic Factors

China gets about 645 mm of precipitation per year on average. It also has an extremely wide variety of soils. Northern China has a drier, cooler (subarctic) climate with pedocal soil types, while the South is warmer and wetter (tropical climate) with pedalfer soil types. China's geography is highly diverse, with hills, plains, and river deltas in the East and deserts, high plateaus, and mountains in the West.

Holdridge Life Zone Pyramid
Holdridge Life Zone Pyramid

Climate

Climatogram of Beijing, China
Climatogram of Beijing, China

Seeing as the country of China covers such a large area of land, it would make sense that different areas of the country have much different climates. The Northern and Northeastern areas of the country are drier and cooler for most of the year, with the winters being much longer than the other areas of the country. The central areas are along the Yangtze River are located in a more temperate zone, where there are four distinct seasons. The South has a much warmer and wetter climate in comparison to the North, and is located in a tropical climate zone.

Species

Major Autotrophs

  • Bamboo
  • Plum flower
  • Lotus flower

Major Heterotrophs

  • Snub-nosed monkey
  • Slow loris
  • Clouded leopard

Decomposers

  • Cloud-ear fungus
  • Lingzhi mushroom
  • Brain puffball (Calvatia craniiformis)

Keystone/Valuable Species

  • Giant Panda
  • Siberian Tiger
  • Baiji Dolphin

Present State

China is currently dealing with a multitude of issues that pose serious risks to the environment as well as humans. Some of these issues include severe air and water pollution, desertification/deforestation (with biodiversity loss as a result), rapid population growth, and the existence of areas known as "cancer villages" : areas so polluted, that merely living there is seen as a cancer risk.

Beijing's air pollution is an infamous symbol of China's many environmental issues
Beijing's air pollution is an infamous symbol of China's many environmental issues

Japan

Environmental Status

-Size of Region: 377930 KM2
-Population size and growth rate: 126497, -.1 growth rate
-Economic Status (Developed, Developing, and Underdeveloped): Developed
-Gross Domestic Product: $5870357000000
-Major Natural Resource
~Major import: crude petroleum, petroleum gas, refined petroleum, coal briquettes, computers
~Major export: cars, vehicle parts, integrated circuits, industrial printers
-Types of energy used for
~Heating: Geothermal heating
~Electrical Production: Fossil fuels, nuclear, hydroelectric, renewable
~Industry: Fossil fuels, nuclear
-Carbon Footprint: 1100233 metric tons of carbon emitted at 8.7 per capita
-Major Environmental Problems: 345 threatened species, vehicle emissions, nuclear power, urban planning

Biome

-Biomes: Temperate deciduous forest, subarctic tundra, alpine tundra, coastal desert
-Major biome: Temperate deciduous forest

Map of Japan
Map of Japan

Abiotic Factors

Abiotic factors of temperate deciduous forest's: Temperature and precipitation. Average temperature can be between -1°C to -30° C in the winter and 27° to 32° in the summer. Average precipitation between 75-150 cm of precipitation every year. Temperate climate influenced by circulating air currents. Solar radiation is very little. Limiting factors are tree falls, fires, tornadoes, insects.

Holdridge Life Zone Pyramid
Holdridge Life Zone Pyramid

Japan would be a cool temperate wet forest

Climate

Climatogram of Japan

Climatogram of Japan
Climatogram of Japan

The temperatures and rainfall vary from one city to the other because of their location. Naha is part of shouter Japan, Tokyo is around the center of Japan, and Sapporo is part of northern Japan. Thus, Naha is generally warmer and has more rainfall compared to the other two. Whilst Sapporo is colder and has less rainfall. Because of these variations, different species can be found in each city.

Species

Major Autotrophs
Plum blossoms
Cherry blossoms
Hydrangeas

Major Heterotrophs
Sable
Striped squirrel
Sakhalin red fox

Major Decomposers
Shiitakes
Bryopsida
Cordyceps

Endangered/Threatened Species
Japanese eel
Stellar sea lion
Blue whale

Keystone Species
Sea otter

Present State

Present State

Japan has problems with deforestation, forest degradation, land degradation, and nuclear radiation . Japan has 31 National Parks covering 20,869 km² (5.5% of the land area) and 56 Quasi-National Parks covering 13,614 km² (3.6% of land area). In addition, the 309 Prefectural Parks cover 19,608 km² (5.2% of the land area). Problems that will occur in the future would be further land degradation due to earthquakes and tsunamis. Environmental problems that are problematic today would include their forest degradation and deforestation.

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