Size of region:

  • 100154839 hectares

Population size:

  • 87 million people

Growth rate:

  • 2.5% population growth rate


  • Developing


  • 2.1%

Natural resources:

  • Petroleum
  • Natural gas
  • Gold
  • Iron


  • Crude petroleum


  • Wheat
  • Refined petroleum

Energy type:

  • Petroleum gas for everything
  • Electricity

Carbon footprint:

  • 2.8 tons per person

Main Environmental Issues:

  • Agricultural land lost to urbanization and windblown sands
  • Increasing soil salination below the Aswan High Dam
  • Desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats


Egypt's major biome is desert. South Africa's latitude and longitude is 26° 00' N and 30° 00' E

Abiotic factors:

  • Temperature:In the coastal region average annual temperatures range from a maximum of 37° C (99° F) to a minimum of 14° C (57° F). Wide variations of temperature occur in the deserts, ranging from a maximum of 46° C (114° F), during daylight hours, to a minimum of 6° C (42° F) after sunset. During the winter season desert temperatures often drop to 0° C (32° F).
  • Annual precipitation is 200 mm
  • Deserts are generally close to the equator, therefore the sun permeates the soil causing the water to evaporate and the nutrients to die. This causes few plants able to withstand these harsh environments
  • Sand that has low bacterial activity

Major Autotrophs:

  • Acacia Tree
  • Papyrus
  • Tamarisk

Major Heterotrophs:

  • Crocodile
  • Dorcas gazelle
  • Camel
  • Egyptian hare


  • Earthworm
  • Dung Beetle

Honeybees are considered to be a keystone species in Egypt and many other parts of the world. If the honeybee population continues to decline at the current rate, honeybees will cease to exist by 2035. There is no artificial substitute for pollination that would be able to counteract the extinction of honeybees. If honeybees became extinct, most of the land ecosystems of the world would collapse and a good part of humanity would perish along with them.


Due to heavy human extraction and high evaporation, the Nile river basin and its inhabitants are especially sensitive to climate change. Current water withdrawal for irrigation is so high, that despite its size, in dry periods, the river does not reach the sea. Climate warming models provide diverging pictures of future river flows in the Nile from a 30% increase to a 78% decrease. In addition, saltwater intrusion into coastal freshwater resources (including aquifers) is likely to increase as a result of sea-level rise due to climate warming and would further reduce the availability of freshwater in the delta region.The Nile basin traverses the largest number of countries of any basin in Africa; changes in the timing and availability of water under climate change may lead to tension, insecurity and management problems.


Size of region:

  • 121988439.981 hectares

Population size:

  • 51.77 million people

Growth rate:

  • 1.3% population growth rate (2013)

Economic status:

  • Developing country

Gross Domestic Product:

  • 350.6 billion GDP

Major import:

  • crude petroleum
  • gold
  • refined petroleum
  • cars
  • diamonds

Major export:

  • Gold
  • platinum
  • coal briquettes
  • diamonds
  • iron ore

Energy used for heating:

  • electricity (44%)
  • Firewood, paraffin
  • No heating (34%)

Energy used for electrical production:

  • lighting
  • cooking
  • space heating

Carbon footprint:

  • 330,000 tons of CO2 released per year
  • 6.3 CO2 per capita

Major environmental problems:

  • South Africa's freshwater supply is almost stretched to its limit
  • Destruction of natural habitats
  • Overfishing
  • Introduction to exotic species
  • Pollution


Biomes include Savanna, Thicket, Grassland, Forest, Fynbos, Nama Karoo, Succulent Karoo and Desert. South Africa's latitude and longitude is 29° 00' S and 24° 00' E

Abiotic factors:

  • Average Temperature 20-30 degrees C
  • Annual precipitation is 100-150 cm
  • Few natural barriers causing high winds
  • Rainfall is concentrated 6-8 months of the year
  • Porous soil with rapid drainage of water
  • Rolling grassland

Major Autotrophs:

  • Proteas
  • Fynbos
  • Ericas

Major Heterotrophs:

  • Elephants
  • Lions
  • Rhinos
  • Leopards
  • Buffalo


  • Earthworms
  • Protozoa
  • Nematoda

African rhinos are considered to be a keystone species in South Africa due to new research that shows they selectively browse on certain grass species, which leaves room for others that otherwise could not compete to move in and promotes more diverse edible plants.

The grassland area in South Africa is home to several animal species including 15 (45%) of South Africa’s endemic mammal species, 10 globally threatened bird species, 52 of the 122 Important Bird Areas in South Africa, and some endemic fish species. The biodiversity and the ecosystem services that the grasslands produce, are under significant pressure. Of the 80 vegetation types in the South African grassland biome, 2 are listed as critically endangered. Without this biodiversity, multiple other species will begin to decline, potentially leaving the grassland areas with hardly any species at all.



Size of the Region:

  • 923,768 km2

Population Size:

  • 174,507,539 people

Growth Rate:

  • 2.8% population change (2013)

Economic Status:

  • Developing Country

Gross Domestic Product:

  • $522 billion (nominal, 2013)

Major Import:

  • Machinery
  • Chemicals
  • Transport Equipment
  • Manufactured Goods
  • Food and Live Animals

Major Export:

  • Petroleum
  • Cocoa
  • Rubber
  • Processed Foods
  • Machinery
  • Entertainment

Types of Energy Used:

  • Oil
  • Coal
  • Hydropower
  • Wind Power
  • Natural Gas
  • Solar Power
  • Wood

Carbon Footprint:

  • 97,262 tons of CO2 released per year

Major Environmental Problems:

  • Oil Spills
  • Waste Management
  • Deforestation
  • Soil Degradation
  • Climate Change


Nigeria's major biomes are rainforest, grassland, mangrove swamps, freshwater swamps, and savannah. Nigeria's latitude and longitude is 10° 00' North and 8°00' East.


Abiotic Factors:

  • There is an average precipitation of 90 inches of rain per year
  • The average temperature is 32°C
  • Has a dry northeast wind during the winter while the climate in both the north and south is generally humid.
  • The far north is much more dry than the humid climate in the south.
  • Southern lowlands, northern plains, southeastern mountains, central plateaus and hills
  • Nigeria consists of loose, sandy soil in the north and reddish, laterite soils in the south

Major Autotrophs:

  • Oil Palm
  • Acacia Palm
  • Doum Palm
  • Baobab Tree
  • Tamarind Tree
  • Locust Bean Tree

Major Heterotrophs:

  • Camels
  • Antelopes
  • Lions
  • Baboons
  • Giraffes
  • Red River Hogs
  • Elephants
  • Chimpanzees
  • Crocodiles
  • Hippopotamuses
  • Leopards
  • Gorillas

Major Decomposers or Scavengers:

  • Termites
  • Vultures
  • Hyenas

Keystone Species:
The African Lion is a keystone species in Nigeria. Its helps maintain a healthy ecosystem by regulating the populations of large herbivores such as buffalo, zebra, and wildebeest. This helps to ensure that the vegetation is maintained and not over-eaten. The lion is also a cultural symbol of Africa and the Savannah.


Dangers to Nigerian rainforest:
Nigeria's tropical rainforest are home to a wide variety of species including chimpanzees, leopards, cross river gorillas, elephants, monkey, parrots, and a wide variety of other animal and plant species. The rainforest in Nigeria are suffering from logging, agricultural fragmentation, fires, and the expansion of human populations. Many species found in the rainforest are suffering from forest degradation. If deforestation is continued at the current rate in Nigeria, there will be no more rainforest in Nigeria by 2020. Many habitats are still unprotected by the government and are continually degrading. One of the main rainforest preserves in Nigeria is the Cross River Preserve, which holds 50% of what is left of Nigeria's rainforest.

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